Μια βάρβαρη επέμβαση στο σώμα από πολύ μικρή ηλικία, περιελάμβανε επιμύκυνση ή επιπλάτυνση του κρανίου χιλιάδες χρόνια παλιά, συνηθισμένη σε φυλές και πολιτισμούς σε Αίγυπτο, Αμερική, Αφρική και Ασία μέχρι και τον προηγούμενο αιώνα. Πιστεύεται ότι γινόταν για ελιτισμό, τελετουργικούς ή φυλετικούς λόγους.
Artificial cranial deformation or artificial deformation of the skull is any practice of intentionally deforming the skull of a human being. It is done by distorting the normal growth of a child's skull by applying force. It may also be performed as a rite of passage in adulthood or spiritual maturation.
Early examples of intentional human cranial deformation predate written history and date back to 45,000 BC in Neanderthal skulls from the Shanidar Cave in Iraq. The earliest written record of cranial deformation dates to 400 BC in Hippocrates’ description of the Macrocephales people who were named for their practice of cranial modification
The reasons for performing cranial deformation are varied. A prominent hypothesis is that deformation was performed to signify group affiliation.Or, it may have been done to demonstrate elite status. This may have played a key role in Egyptian and Mayan societies. Queen Nefertiti is often depicted with what may be an elongated skull, as is King Tutankhamen. (wikipedia)
Head flattening, also called head binding, head shaping or head moulding, is the application of pressure or bindings to cranial bones (the human skull) to alter their shapes. Flat shapes, elongated ones (produced by binding between two pieces of wood), rounded ones (binding in cloth) and conical ones are among those chosen. It is typically carried out on an infant, as the skull is most pliable at this time. In a typical case, headbinding begins approximately a month after birth and continues for about six months.
Usually it is a part of a cultural ritual, aimed at creating a skull shape which is aesthetically more pleasing or associated with desirable attributes such as intelligence. For example, in the Nahai-speaking area of Tomman Island and the south south-western Malalukan, a person with a finely elongated head is thought to be more intelligent, of higher status, and closer to the world of the spirits.
The earliest known culture to bind their children's heads were the ancient Egyptians of the third millennium BC. The practice was also known among the Australian Aborigines, Maya, and certain tribes of North American natives, most notably the Chinookan tribes of the Northwest and the Choctaw of the Southeast.In the Old World, Huns are also known to have practiced similar cranial deformation.(wilipedia)
Leonid Pasternak, Alexander Pushkin at the Seashore - State Russian Museum, Saint Petersburg (Государственный Русский музей) Date: 1896 Technique: Oil on canvas, 61 x 76.5 cm *Source*
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